The third element in the periodic table is lithium. Lithium(Li) electron construction is 1s2 2s1. The period of lithium is 2 and also it is a s-block element. The electron configuration of lithium and also the orbit diagram room the main topics that this article. Also, period and team determination, valency and valence electrons of lithium, assorted reactions and compound formation, bond development of lithium have actually been discussed.

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Electrons room arranged in various orbitals at various distances indigenous the cell core of the atom follow to particular rules. The arrangement of electrons at different energy levels and orbitals of one atom according to certain rules is called electron configuration. The electron setup of atoms in a periodic table deserve to be excellent in 2 ways.

Electron configuration via orbit.Electron configuration via orbital.

Electron setup through orbitals is done on different principles. For example, Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle.

Table that Contents

Lithium Electron Configuration through orbit

All the electron in the atom revolve about the cell nucleus in a number of circular paths of a certain radius. Circular routes of this specific radius are referred to as orbit(shell). Orbits space expressed by ‘n’.

And the an initial orbit is to express by K, second orbit L, 3rd orbit M, fourth orbit N. The preferably electron holding volume in each orbit is 2n2.

LiF bonding

The task of alkali metals with particular halogens slowly increases from lithium to cesium. The is, Li + and F– ion in the crystal reduces the solubility that LiF. Therefore, LiF is less soluble in water. LiCl, LiBr, LiI are soluble in organic solvents ethanol and propanol.

The reaction of Oxygen v Lithium

Group-1 elements, such as alkali metals, have actually a greater capacity to tie to oxygen. Lithium (an alkali metal) reacts v controlled amounts of oxygen to kind LiO (oxide) compounds.

4Li (s) + O2 (g) → 2Li2O (lithium oxide)Heating lithium v excess oxygen produce the compound Li2O2.2Li + O2 → Li2O2 (lithium peroxide).

The reaction of lithium with hydrogen and the development of compounds

Hydrogen electron configuration is 1s1. Alkali steels react with dry hydrogen in ~ a temperature of about 400 ° C to type metallic hydrides. Yet the lithium atom is different from all various other alkali metals. Lithium reacts v hydrogen at a temperature that 800°C to produce lithium hydride.

2Li + H2 → 2 LiH.

The reaction task decreases as it moves from lithium to cesium element. Metal hydride security tends to decrease from LiH come CsH.

Lithium oxide

Lithium reacts through water to develop LiOH.2Li + 2H2O → 2LiOH + H2

Lithium (Li) is oxidized by oxygen in the air to develop alkaline Li2O.4Li + O2 → 2Li2O

Li2O reacts through water to produce mild alkali LiOH.Li2O + H2O → 2LiOH

As Li2O is alkaline, the destroys the mountain of HCl and also produces salt and water.Li2O + 2HCl → 2LiCl + H2O

Reaction that lithium with various other elements

Lithium atoms react through sulfur and also phosphorus to kind sulfide and also phosphide compounds.

16 Li + S8 → 8Li2S12Li + P4 → 4Li3P

The alkali metal lithium reacts v nitrogen(N2) in ~ high temperature to kind nitride compounds.

6Li + N2 → 2Li3N

The exceptional properties that lithium atoms

In general, aspects of the same group have similarity in physical and chemical properties. The facets of group-1 are alkali metals. The elements are lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs).

But the properties of lithium (Li) are different from the properties of every the other aspects in this group. The facets in group-1 kind ionic bonds in halide compounds. However the halide link of the lithium atom have covalent bonds.

For this reason, sodium halide is soluble in water yet lithium halide is an extremely slightly dissolve in water. LiCl, LiBr, and also LiI are soluble in miscellaneous organic solvents (ethanol, propanol, ether).

Alkali metals react with hydrogen in ~ 400° C to type hydride compounds. Yet lithium atoms kind lithium hydride compounds v hydrogen in ~ a temperature the 800° C.2Li + H2 (800° C) → 2LiH.

The reasons for the superior properties the lithium (Li) are-

The small size that Li atom and also Li+ ion.The polarization volume of Li+ ion is high.The zero d orbit is lacking at the valence level.Lithium is a high ionic potential element.

Due come the exceptional properties the lithium (Li), numerous distinctions the lithium with various other alkali metals have been observed. They are-

Lithium is less energetic than alkali metals. That bright color does not fade easily when it come in call with air. In the instance of various other alkali metals, their bright shade fades in call with air.Lithium (Li) reacts v oxygen to type only monoxide (Li2O) compounds. Yet never forms peroxide (Li2O2) or superoxide (LiO2).Lithium is the just alkali metal that reacts through nitrogen (N2) to produce Li3N.6Li + N2 → 2Li3N.All various other alkali metals do no react through nitrogen (N2).When the alkaline steel nitride is heated, that decomposes and also metallic nitride and also oxygen are produced.2MNO3 → 2 MNO2 + O2. Here, When lithium nitride is heated, that decomposes and produces lithium monoxide (Li2O), NO2, and oxygen (O2).4LiNO3 (heat) → 2Li2O + 4NO2 + O2Hydroxides the alkali metals have actually a strong base. However lithium hydroxide is a weak base.Lithium chloride (LiCl) combines v water to type di-hydrate compounds. But NaCl, KCl, CsCl never type hydrate compounds.

See more: Biology Ch A Group Of Thylakoid Discs Make Up, Thylakoid Definition And Function


Lithium electron configuration and orbital diagram are the main topics of this article. Also, period and group determination, valency and also valence electrons, various reactions and compound development of lithium, bond development of lithium have been discussed.


How perform you write the electron construction for lithium?Ans: Lithium electron configuration is 1s2 2s1.How numerous electrons are there in lithium?Ans: 3 electrons.What room the 3 electrons that lithium?Ans: Yes.What is the atomic mass that lithium?Ans: Lithium standard atomic mass is 6.941How many shells does lithium have?Ans: 2 shells.How countless valence electron does lithium(Li) have?Ans: The valence electron that lithium is one.