Key ideas

The attractions in between the protons and also electrons of atoms can reason an electron to move fully from one atom come the other. As soon as an atom loser or benefit an electron, that is called an ion. The atom that loses one electron becomes a confident ion.The atom that gains an electron i do not care a an unfavorable ion.A optimistic and an unfavorable ion tempt each other and kind an ionic bond.

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Students will certainly look at animations and also make drawings of the ionic bonding of sodium chloride (NaCl). College student will view that both ionic and covalent bonding start with the attractions that protons and electrons in between different atoms. However in ionic bonding, electrons space transferred indigenous one atom come the other and not mutual like in covalent bonding. College student will use Styrofoam balls to do models the the ionic bonding in sodium chloride (salt).


Students will be able to explain the process of the development of ions and also ionic bonds.


Download the student activity sheet, and also distribute one every student when specified in the activity. The task sheet will certainly serve as the “Evaluate” ingredient of every 5-E lesson plan.


Be sure you and also the student wear effectively fitting goggles.

Materials because that Each Group

Black paperSaltCup v salt from evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials for Each Student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 big Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Note: In one ionically external inspection substance such together NaCl, the smallest proportion of confident and an adverse ions bonded together is dubbed a “formula unit” quite than a “molecule.” Technically speaking, the term “molecule” refers to two or an ext atoms that space bonded with each other covalently, not ionically. Because that simplicity, you might want to usage the term “molecule” because that both covalently and ionically external inspection substances.


Show an animation to present the process of ionic bonding.

Project the animation Ionic bond in sodium chloride.

Remind students that in covalent bonding, atom share electrons. Yet there is another type of bonding whereby atoms don’t share, but instead either take it or offer up electrons. This is dubbed ionic bonding. This computer animation shows a an extremely simplified design of just how sodium and also chloride ions room formed.

Note: In order to leveling the design of ionic bonding, a single atom the sodium and also chlorine space shown. In reality, the chlorine atom would be bonded to an additional chlorine atom as component of the gas Cl2. The salt atom would certainly be one of billions that trillions of salt atoms bonded with each other as a solid. The combination of this substances is a complicated reaction between the atom of the 2 substances. The computer animation shows single separated atom to illustrate the idea of how ions and also ionic bonds are formed.

Explain what happens throughout the animation.

Tell students that the attraction of the proton in the sodium and also chlorine because that the other atom’s electrons bring the atoms closer together. Chlorine has a stronger attraction because that electrons 보다 sodium (shown through the more thickness arrow). At some suggest during this process, one electron from the salt is moved to the chlorine. The salt loses one electron and also the chlorine profit an electron.

Tell student that when an atom profit or loses an electron, it i do not care an ion.

Sodium loses an electron, leaving it with 11 protons, but only 10 electrons. Because it has 1 much more proton 보다 electrons, sodium has actually a charge of +1, making that a confident ion.Chlorine profit an electron, leave it v 17 protons and 18 electrons. Because it has 1 more electron than protons, chlorine has actually a fee of −1, making it a an unfavorable ion. As soon as ions form, atoms get or shed electrons until their outer energy level is full.For example, as soon as sodium loser its one outer electron native the third energy level, the 2nd level i do not care the brand-new outer power level and also is full. Due to the fact that these electrons are closer to the nucleus, castle are much more tightly held and also will not leave. As soon as chlorine profit an electron, its third energy level i do not care full. An additional electron can not join, because it would have to come in in ~ the fourth energy level. This much from the nucleus, the electron would not feel enough attraction from the proton to be stable. Climate the confident sodium ion and an unfavorable chloride ion attract each various other and type an ionic bond. The ion are more stable as soon as they room bonded 보다 they were together individual atoms.

Have students describe the process of ionic bonding in salt chloride on their task sheet.

Give each student an task sheet.

Have students write a brief caption under each snapshot to explain the process of covalent bonding and answer the an initial three questions. The rest of the task sheet will certainly either it is in completed together a class, in groups, or individually depending upon your instructions.

Project the picture Ionic shortcut in salt chloride.

Review with students the process of ionic bonding extended in the animation.

Help students write a brief caption alongside each picture to define the procedure of ionic bonding in sodium and chloride ions.

Sodium and also chlorine atom are close to each other.The protons of the 2 atoms attract the electron of the various other atom. The thicker arrow shows the chlorine has actually a more powerful attraction for electrons 보다 sodium has.During the interactions between the atoms, the electron in sodium"s outer energy level is transferred to the outer energy level the the chlorine atom.Since sodium lost an electron, it has 11 protons, but only 10 electrons. This makes sodium a confident ion with a fee of +1. Since chlorine obtained an electron it has 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This makes chloride a negative ion with a fee of −1.The positive sodium ion and an adverse chloride ion lure one another. They do an ionic link and type the ionic link NaCl.Explore

Have students observe actual salt chloride crystals and relate their shape to the molecule model.

This two-part activity will aid students watch the relationship between the setup of ions in a version of a salt chloride crystal and also the cubic form of actual sodium chloride crystals.

Teacher preparation

The day prior to the lesson, dissolve about 10 grams the salt in 50 mL that water. Usage Petri key or usage scissors to cut down 5 or 6 clear plastic cups to make shallow plastic dishes. Pour sufficient saltwater to simply cover the bottom of each dish (1 for each group). Leaving the key overnight come evaporate therefore that brand-new salt crystals will be produced.

Materials because that each group

Black paperSaltCup v salt from evaporated saltwaterMagnifier permanent marker

Materials for each student

2 little Styrofoam balls2 large Styrofoam balls2 toothpicks

Procedure, part 1

Observe sodium chloride crystals.Place a couple of grains the salt on a piece of black paper. Use your magnifier to look carefully at the salt.

Have students build a 3-dimensional model of salt chloride.

Each student will make 1 unit of sodium chloride. College student in each group will placed their sodium chloride units together. Friend can aid the groups combine their structures right into a course model of a salt chloride crystal.

Procedure, component 2

Make NaCl units.Use the mite to put a “−” top top the large balls which represent chloride ions.Use the mite to put a “+” ~ above the small balls, which stand for sodium ions.Break 2 toothpicks in half. Use among the half-toothpicks to connect the centers the the little and huge ions together to do a unit of sodium chloride (NaCl). Carry out the very same thing with the other little and huge ball.

Use an additional half-toothpick to connect the two NaCl systems in a right line together shown.

Put NaCl ions with each other to do one class of ions.Contribute your line of ion to her group and also arrange lock to make a 4×4 square of ions.

Use half-toothpicks to attach the ends of every line to organize the ions together. You only need to place toothpicks in the balls at the end of every line.

Build a class sodium chloride crystal.

Give her group’s layer of ion to your teacher. Her teacher will stack these to construct a model of a sodium chloride crystal.


Point out that anywhere you look at on the crystal, a salt ion and a chloride ion are always surrounded by the oppositely charged ion. This opposite charges organize the ions together in a crystal.


Ask students

Based top top the way sodium and chloride ion bond together, why room salt crystals shaped favor cubes?The size and arrangement the the ions develops a cube top top the molecular level. Because the sample repeats over and also over again in the very same way, the shape continues to be the same also when the crystal becomes the normal dimension that we can see.Extend

Show students just how calcium and also chlorine atoms bond to form the ionic compound calcium chloride.

Tell students the there is one more common substance dubbed calcium chloride (CaCl2). It is the salt the is provided on icy sidewalks and roads. Define that once calcium and also chlorine reaction they develop ions, favor sodium and also chlorine, however the calcium ion is different from the sodium ion.

Ask students:

What ions do you think CaCl2 is made of? One calcium ion and also two chloride ions.

Project the computer animation Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Point out that the calcium loses 2 electrons, becoming a +2 ion. Every of the 2 chlorine atom gains among these electrons, do them every a −1 ion. Aid students realize that 1 calcium ion bonds v 2 chloride ions to type calcium chloride (CaCl2), which is neutral.

Some atoms acquire or lose much more than 1 electron. Calcium loser 2 electrons as soon as it becomes an ion. Once ions come with each other to kind an ionic bond, they always join in number that specifically cancel the end the optimistic and negative charge.

Project the image Calcium chloride Ionic Bond.

Review through students the process of ionic bonding spanned in the animation.

Have students create a quick caption beneath each picture to describe the procedure of ionic bonding in sodium and also chloride ions.

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One calcium and also two chlorine are near each other.The proton of the calcium atom lure the electrons from the chlorine atom. The protons of the 2 chlorine atoms tempt the electrons from the calcium atom much more strongly as shown by the thicker arrows.During the interactions in between the atoms, the 2 electrons in calcium"s outer power level space transferred to the outer power level of each of the chlorine atoms.Since calcium lost two electrons, it has 20 protons, but only 18 electrons. This renders calcium a confident ion with a fee of 2+. Since each chlorine atom acquired an electron, they each have 17 protons and also 18 electrons. This provides each chloride a an adverse ion with a fee of −1.Oppositely charged ions entice each other, developing an ionic bond. The bonded ions are much more stable than the individual atoms were.