Learning Objectives

Discuss some of the environmental and also physical obstacles to reliable listening.Explain exactly how cognitive and personal factors have the right to present barriers to reliable listening.Discuss common bad listening practices.

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Barriers to effective listening are current at every phase of the listening process (Hargie, 2011). At the receiving stage, noise have the right to block or distort just arrive stimuli. In ~ the interpreting stage, complicated or abstract info may be an overwhelming to relate come previous experiences, making it challenging to with understanding. In ~ the recalling stage, natural boundaries to ours memory and also challenges come concentration can interfere with remembering. In ~ the analyzing stage, personal biases and prejudices have the right to lead united state to block civilization out or i think we know what they are going to say. In ~ the responding stage, a lack of paraphrasing and also questioning an abilities can bring about misunderstanding. In the adhering to section, we will discover how environmental and also physical factors, cognitive and an individual factors, and also bad listening methods present obstacles to effective listening.

Environmental and Physical barriers to Listening

Environmental factors such as lighting, temperature, and also furniture affect our capability to listen. A room that is too dark have the right to make united state sleepy, simply as a room that is too warm or cool can raise awareness the our physical discomfort come a suggest that that is distracting. Some seating kinds facilitate listening, when others different people. In general, hear is less complicated when listeners have the right to make direct eye contact with and are in close physics proximity to a speaker. You may recall from thing 4 “Nonverbal Communication” the when group members are permitted to pick a leader, they often select the human being who is sit at the facility or head that the table (Andersen, 1999). Even though the person may not have demonstrated any kind of leadership abilities, world subconsciously gravitate towards speakers that are nonverbally accessible. The capability to efficiently see and also hear a person increases people’s confidence in their abilities to obtain and process information. Eye contact and also physical proximity can still be affected by noise. Together we learned in thing 1 “Introduction to communication Studies”, ecological noises such together a whirring air conditioner, barking dogs, or a ringing fire alarm deserve to obviously interfere v listening in spite of direct currently of sight and well-placed furniture.

Physiological noise, like environmental noise, have the right to interfere through our ability to procedure incoming information. This is taken into consideration a physical obstacle to efficient listening since it emanates indigenous our physical body. Physiological noise is noise stemming indigenous a physics illness, injury, or bodily stress. Ailments such together a cold, a damaged leg, a headache, or a toxicity ivy outbreak can variety from stroked nerves to unbearably pains and impact our listening relative to your intensity. Another kind of noise, emotional noise, bridges physical and also cognitive obstacles to effective listening. Emotional noise, or noise stemming indigenous our psychological states consisting of moods and level that arousal, deserve to facilitate or impede listening. Any mood or state that arousal, hopeful or negative, that is too far above or listed below our continuous baseline creates a barrier to post reception and processing. The normally positive emotionally state of being in love can be just as much of a barrier as feeling hatred. Excited arousal can also distract as much as concerned arousal. Stress about an upcoming occasions ranging from shedding a job, to having surgery, come wondering around what come eat because that lunch can overshadow just arrived messages. While we will explore cognitive obstacles to efficient listening more in the following section, psychological noise is relevant here provided that the body and also mind space not totally separate. In fact, they can connect in ways that additional interfere through listening. Fatigue, for example, is commonly a combination of psychological and also physiological stresses that manifests as tension (psychological noise) and also weakness, sleepiness, and tiredness (physiological noise). Additionally, psychological anxiety (psychological noise) can also manifest chin in our bodies through trembling, sweating, blushing, or even breaking out in rashes (physiological noise).

Cognitive and personal Barriers to Listening

Aside from the obstacles to effective listening that might be current in the atmosphere or emanate from our bodies, cognitive limits, a absence of hear preparation, difficult or disorganized messages, and also prejudices have the right to interfere v listening. Even if it is you call it multitasking, daydreaming, glazing over, or drifting off, we all cognitively process other things while receiving messages. If you think of her listening mind together a wall of ten televisions, friend may notification that in some cases five the the ten televisions are tuned right into one channel. If the one channel is a class being offered by her professor, then you room exerting about half of her cognitive handling abilities on one message. In an additional situation, all ten televisions might be on various channels. The reality that we have the capacity to process an ext than one point at a time supplies some advantages and disadvantages. Yet unless we can better understand exactly how our cognitive capacities and personal preferences impact our listening, us are most likely to experience an ext barriers than benefits.

Difference in between Speech and also Thought Rate

Our capability to process much more information than what comes from one speak or resource creates a obstacle to effective listening. While human being speak in ~ a price of 125 to 175 words every minute, we can procedure between 400 and 800 words every minute (Hargie, 2011). This gap between speech rate and also thought rate provides us an opportunity to side-process any number of thoughts that have the right to be distracting native a much more important message. Because of this gap, the is difficult to give one blog post our “undivided attention,” yet we deserve to occupy other networks in ours minds with thoughts pertained to the main message. Because that example, using some of your extra cognitive handling abilities to repeat, rephrase, or reorganize messages coming from one source allows girlfriend to use that extra volume in a means that reinforces the primary message.

The difference in between speech and thought price connects to personal barriers to listening, as personal concerns are often the emphasis of contending thoughts that deserve to take us away native listening and difficulty our capacity to concentrate on others’ messages. 2 common obstacles to concentration room self-centeredness and also lack of an ideas (Brownell, 1993). For example, when our self-consciousness is raised, we may be too busy thinking around how we look, just how we’re sitting, or what rather think of united state to be attentive to an just arrived message. Additionally, we space often challenged when presented through messages that we perform not uncover personally relevant. In general, we employ selective attention, which describes our prjulianum.netsity to pay fist to the message that benefit us in some way and filter rather out. Therefore the student that is checking his or she Twitter feed during class may all of sudden switch his or she attention ago to the previously ignored professor as soon as the following words are spoken: “This will certainly be crucial for the exam.”


Drifting fist is a common barrier to listening. Try to find personal relevance in the post to aid maintain concentration.

Another common obstacle to reliable listening that stems native the speech and thought rate divide is an answer preparation. Response preparation refers to our prjulianum.netsity to practice what we are going come say next while a speak is tho talking. Rehearsal of what we will certainly say when a speaker’s rotate is over is critical part that the listening procedure that takes place between the recalling and also evaluation and/or the evaluation and also responding stage. Rehearsal i do not care problematic when response preparation starts as who is receiving a message and also hasn’t had actually time to interact in translate or recall. In this sense, we room listening through the score of responding instead of with the goal of understanding, which deserve to lead united state to miss important information that could influence our response.

“Getting Plugged In”

Technology, Multitasking, and Listening

Do you choose to listen to music when you carry out homework? perform you clean her apartment while talking to your mom on the phone? perform you think students must be enabled to use laptops in every college classrooms? your answers come these questions will point to your choices for multitasking. If friend answered “yes” to many of them, climate you space in line through the basic practices the the “net generation” of digital natives because that whom multitasking, specifically with various creates of media, is a means of life. Multitasking is a concept that has been roughly for a while and also emerged in addition to the boosting expectation the we will certainly fill multiple role demands throughout the day. Multitasking deserve to be quite straightforward and beneficial—for example, if we listen to motivating music while functioning out. But multitasking can be an extremely inefficient, especially when one or an ext of ours concurrent jobs are facility or unfamiliar to us (Bardhi, Rohm, & Sultan, 2010).

Media multitasking specifically refers to the use of multiple develops of media at the exact same time, and also it have the right to have optimistic and negative effects on hearne (Bardhi, Rohm, & Sultan, 2010). The an adverse effects of media multitasking have received lot attention in current years, as people question the decreasing attention span within ours society. Media multitasking may promote inefficiency, because it can lead to distractions and also plays a prominent duty for countless in procrastination. The numerous alternatives for media engagement that we have can likewise lead to a emotion of chaos together our attention is pulled in many directions, developing a general sense of disorder. And also many of united state feel a feeling of enslavement when we communicate in media multitasking, together we feel choose we can not live without certain personal media outlets.

Media multitasking can additionally give people a feeling of control, together they usage multiple innovations to access various point out of details to deal with a problem or finish a task. An employee may be able to use she iPad come look up details needed to address a issue raised throughout a company meeting. She can then e-mail that link to the presenter, who might share it through the room v his laptop and also a LCD projector. Media multitasking can likewise increase efficiency, as civilization can lug out jobs faster. The web links to videos and also online short articles that I’ve included in this textbook permit readers choose you come quickly accessibility additional information about a certain subject to prepare for a presentation or complete a paper assignment. Media multitasking can also increase engagement. Aside from just reading material in a textbook, students deserve to now access information with an author’s blog or Twitter account.

Media multitasking can develop an suffer that feel productive, yet is it really? What space the after-effects of ours media- and also technology-saturated world? Although countless of us favor to think the we’re an excellent multitaskers, some research shows otherwise. Because that example, student laptop usage during class has been linked to lower academic performance (Fried, 2008). This is due to the fact that media multitasking has the potential to interfere v listening at multiple step of the process. The study verified that laptop use interfered v receiving, as students making use of them reported that they paid less attention come the class lectures. This is since students supplied the laptops for purposes other than acquisition notes or exploring course content. Of the students using laptops, 81 percent confirm e-mail during lectures, 68 percent used instant messaging, and also 43 percent surfed the web. Students using laptops likewise had challenge with the interpretation stage of listening, together they discovered less clarity in the components of the lecture lock heard and did not understand the course product as much as students that didn’t use a laptop. The difficulties with receiving and interpreting clearly create worries with recall that deserve to lead to lower scholastic performance in the class. Laptop use also negatively impacted the listening abilities of college student not making use of laptops. This students reported the they were distracted, as their fist was attracted to the laptop display screens of other students.

What space some typical ways the you interact in media multitasking? What space some optimistic and negative consequences of your media multitasking?What strategies execute you or can you use to help minimize the an adverse effects that media multitasking?Should laptops, smartphones, and also other media tools be provided by students during college classes? Why or why not? What limitations or guidelines for use could instructors provide that would capitalize ~ above the visibility of such media to improve student discovering and aid minimize distractions?

Lack of listening Preparation

Another obstacle to effective listening is a general lack of hear preparation. Unfortunately, most world have never ever received any kind of formal cultivate or instruction regarded listening. Back some human being think listening skills just develop over time, competent listening is difficult, and enhancing listening skills takes concerted effort. Also when listening education is available, people do not embrace it as conveniently as they do avenues to improve their speak skills. After teaching interaction courses for several years, I have actually consistently found that students and teachers method the listening component of the course much less enthusiastically than few of the various other parts. Hearne is regularly viewed together an annoyance or a chore, or simply ignored or minimized as part of the interaction process. In addition, our individualistic culture values speaking much more than listening, together it’s the speakers who are periodically literally in the spotlight. Although hear competence is a vital part of society interaction and also many of us value others us perceive to it is in “good listeners,” listening just doesn’t obtain the exact same kind that praise, attention, instruction, or credibility together speaking. Teachers, parents, and relational partners explicitly convey the prominence of listening through statements favor “You better listen come me,” “Listen closely,” and also “Listen up,” but these needs are hardly ever paired with concrete instruction. So uneven you setup on taking an ext communication courses later (and i hope friend do), this chapter may be the only instruction you obtain on the basics the the hear process, some barriers to effective listening, and also how we can increase our listening competence.

Bad messages and/or Speakers

Bad message and/or speakers also present a obstacle to effective listening. Periodically our problem listening originates in the sender. In state of article construction, poorly structured messages or messages that space too vague, as well jargon filled, or too an easy can current listening difficulties. In terms of speakers’ delivery, linguistic fillers, monotone voices, distracting movements, or a disheveled appearance can inhibit our capability to cognitively procedure a message (Hargie, 2011). Together we will discover in section 5.2.3 “Bad listening Practices”, speakers deserve to employ details strategies to create listenable messages that take some of the load off the listener through tailoring a blog post to it is in heard and also processed easily. Thing 9 “Preparing a Speech” also discusses numerous strategies for developing messages tailored for dental delivery, including things choose preview and review statements, transitions, and also parallel wording. Listening likewise becomes difficult when a speaker tries to present too much information. Details overload is a common obstacle to reliable listening that good speakers can aid mitigate by building redundancy into their speeches and also providing concrete instances of new information to assist audience members interpret and understand the key ideas.


Oscar Wilde said, “Listening is a very dangerous thing. If one listens one may be convinced.” Unfortunately, some of our default methods of processing information and perceiving rather lead united state to rigid ways of thinking. When we interact in prejudiced listening, we are usually trying to preserve our means of thinking and avoid being convinced of miscellaneous different. This form of prejudice is a barrier to effective listening, because when we prejudge a person based upon his or her identity or ideas, us usually prevent listening in an energetic and/or ethical way.

We exhibition prejudice in our listening in number of ways, several of which are more obvious 보다 others. Because that example, us may claim to it is in in a hurry and also only selectively attend to the parts of a blog post that we agree v or that aren’t controversial. We can also operate indigenous a state of denial where we prevent a subject or human being altogether so the our views are not challenged. Prejudices that are based on a person’s identity, such as race, age, occupation, or appearance, might lead united state to assume the we recognize what the or she will certainly say, basically closing under the hearne process. Maintaining an julianum.net up mind and engaging in perception check can aid us recognize prejudiced listening and also hopefully shift into an ext competent hearne practices.

Bad listening Practices

The formerly discussed obstacles to reliable listening might be challenging to overcome due to the fact that they are at least partially past our control. Physics barriers, cognitive limitations, and perceptual biases exist within all of us, and it is more realistic to think that we deserve to become an ext conscious of and lessen them 보다 it is to believe that us can remove them altogether. Various other “bad listening” practices might be habitual, but they are easier to deal with with part concerted effort. These negative listening practices encompass interrupting, distorted listening, eavesdropping, wild listening, narcissistic listening, and also pseudo-listening.


Conversations unfold as a series of turns, and turn taking is negotiated with a complicated set of verbal and also nonverbal signals that are consciously and also subconsciously received. In this sense, conversational rotate taking has actually been likened to a dance where communicators shot to avoid stepping on every other’s toes. Among the most regular glitches in the turn-taking process is interruption, yet not all disturbances are taken into consideration “bad listening.” one interruption can be unintentional if us misread cues and also think a human is done speaking just to have actually him or her begin up again at the same time we do. Sometimes disruptions are much more like overlapping statements that present support (e.g., “I think therefore too.”) or excitement about the conversation (e.g., “That’s for this reason cool!”). Back-channel cues choose “uh-huh,” together we learned earlier, additionally overlap v a speaker’s message. Us may also interrupt out of need if we’re engaged in a task with the various other person and also need to sell directions (e.g., “Turn left here.”), instructions (e.g., “Will you whisk the eggs?”), or warnings (e.g., “Look out behind you!”). All these disruptions are not typically thought that as evidence of bad listening unless they become distracting because that the speak or room unnecessary.

Unintentional interruptions can still it is in considered bad listening if they an outcome from mindless communication. Together we’ve currently learned, intended definition is no as vital as the an interpretation that is generated in the interaction itself. Therefore if friend interrupt unintentionally, but since you were just half-listening, climate the interruption is still proof of bad listening. The speak may kind a an unfavorable impression the you the can’t just be erased by girlfriend noting that you no “mean come interrupt.” disruptions can also be used as an effort to conquer a conversation. A human engaging in this type of interruption may lead the other communicator to shot to assert dominance, too, leading to a competition to see who have the right to hold the floor the longest or the most often. Much more than likely, though, the speak will type a an adverse impression that the interrupter and also may retract from the conversation.

Distorted Listening

Distorted listening wake up in countless ways. Sometimes we just gain the bespeak of information wrong, which have the right to have fairly little an unfavorable effects if we space casually recounting a story, annoying impacts if we forget the stimulate of turns (left, right, left or right, left, right?) in ours driving directions, or very negative effects if we recount the events of a crime out of order, which leads to faulty testimony in ~ a criminal trial. Rationalization is another type of distorted listening with which we adapt, edit, or skew incoming information to fit our existing schemata. Us may, for example, reattribute the reason of miscellaneous to better suit our own beliefs. If a professor is explaining come a college student why the earned a “D” ~ above his final paper, the student might reattribute the reason from “I no follow the document guidelines” to “this professor is an unfair grader.” periodically we actually adjust the words us hear to do them better fit what we are thinking. This can conveniently happen if we sign up with a conversation late, overhear part of a conversation, or are being a lazy listener and also miss important setup and also context. Passing follow me distorted information have the right to lead to an unfavorable consequences varying from beginning a false rumor around someone to passing along incorrect medical instructions indigenous one health-care provider come the following (Hargie, 2011). Last, the addition of product to a article is a kind of distorted hearne that actually goes against our common pattern the listening, which entails reducing the amount of information and losing some an interpretation as us take that in. The metaphor of “weaving a high tale” is related to the practice of distorting with addition, as inaccurate or fabricated information is included to what was in reality heard. Enhancement of material is additionally a typical feature that gossip. Fantastic example of the an outcome of distorted hearne is provided by the character Anthony Crispino top top Saturday Night Live, that passes follow me distorted news top top the “Weekend Update” segment. In previous episodes, that has listed that Lebron James turned down the Cleveland Show to it is in on Miami Vice (instead of left the Cleveland Cavaliers to play basketball because that the Miami Heat) and also that chairman Obama planned on repealing the “Bush haircuts” (instead of the bush tax cuts).


Eavesdropping is a poor listening practice that entails a calculated and also planned attempt to covertly listen come a conversation. Over there is a difference between eavesdropping on and also overhearing a conversation. Plenty of if not many of the interaction we have actually throughout the day happen in the visibility of other people. However, offered that our perceptual fields are usually concentrated on the interaction, we are frequently unaware the the other people around us or nothing think about the reality that they might be listening in on ours conversation. We usually just become conscious of the reality that other people could it is in listening in when we’re mentioning something private.


Eavesdropping entails intentionally listening in on a conversation that you room not a part of.

People eavesdrop for a selection of reasons. Civilization might think one more person is talking about them behind their earlier or the someone is engaged in illegal or unethical behavior. Sometimes world eavesdrop to feed the gossip mill or the end of curiosity (McCornack, 2007). In any type of case, this type of hear is considered negative because it is a violation that people’s privacy. Aftermath for eavesdropping may incorporate an angry reaction if caught, damage to interpersonal relationships, or being perceived as dishonest and sneaky. Additionally, eavesdropping may lead people to find out details that is personally upsetting or hurtful, particularly if the suggest of the eavesdropping is to find out what civilization are speak behind your back.

Aggressive Listening

Aggressive listening is a negative listening exercise in which human being pay fist in stimulate to attack something that a speaker says (McCornack, 2007). Aggressive listeners favor to ambush speakers in order come critique your ideas, personality, or other characteristics. Such behavior often outcomes from built-up frustration in ~ an interpersonal relationship. Unfortunately, the more two civilization know every other, the better they will certainly be at aggressive listening. Take it the complying with exchange in between long-term partners:

Deb: I’ve been thinking about making a salsa garden beside the side porch. I think it would certainly be really great to be able to go pick our own tomatoes and peppers and cilantro to make homemade salsa.

Summer: Really? when are girlfriend thinking around doing it?

Deb: following weekend. Would certainly you favor to help?

Summer: i won’t hold my breath. Every time you come up v some “idea of the week” you obtain so excited about it. But do you ever follow through with it? No. Fine be eat salsa native the store following year, just like we are now.

Although Summer’s initial solution to Deb’s idea is look at appropriate and also positive, she asks the question because she has already planned her upcoming aggressive response. Summer’s aggression towards Deb isn’t about a salsa garden; it’s about a structure frustration through what Summer perceives together Deb’s absence of follow-through on her ideas. Aside from engaging in wild listening due to the fact that of built-up frustration, together listeners may likewise attack others’ ideas or mock your feelings because of their own low self-esteem and also insecurities.

Narcissistic Listening

Narcissistic hearne is a form of self-centered and also self-absorbed listening in i m sorry listeners try to make the interaction about them (McCornack, 2007). Narcissistic listeners redirect the focus of the conversation come them by interrupting or transforming the topic. When the emphasis is taken turn off them, narcissistic listeners may give an adverse feedback through pouting, providing an adverse criticism the the speaker or topic, or skip the speaker. A common sign that narcissistic hear is the combination of a “pivot,” once listeners shift the focus of attention back to them, and “one-upping,” when listeners try to top what vault speakers have actually said during the interaction. You can see this narcissistic combination in the complying with interaction:

Bryce: my boss has been yes, really unfair come me lately and also hasn’t been letting me work about my class schedule. I think ns may have to quit, however I don’t know where okay find another job.

Toby: Why room you complaining? I’ve to be working through the same stupid ceo for 2 years. He doesn’t even care that i’m trying to acquire my degree and also work in ~ the same time. And you must hear the way he talks to me in prior of the various other employees.

Narcissistic listeners, provided their self-centeredness, may actually fool themselves into thinking the they are listening and proactively contributing come a conversation. We all have the urge to re-publishing our very own stories throughout interactions, because other people’s interaction triggers our very own memories around related experiences. That is generally more competent to withhold sharing our stories till the other person has been able come speak and also we have given the appropriate support and also response. Yet we all shift the emphasis of a conversation ago to us occasionally, either due to the fact that we don’t understand another method to answer or because we are making an attempt at empathy. Narcissistic listeners repetitively interrupt or follow another speaker with statements favor “That reminds me of the time…,” “Well, if ns were you…,” and “That’s nothing…” (Nichols, 1995) together we’ll discover later, corresponding stories isn’t taken into consideration empathetic listening, but occasionally doing the doesn’t make you a narcissistic listener.


Do you have actually a girlfriend or family member who repeats stories? If so, then you’ve probably involved in pseudo-listening together a politeness strategy. Pseudo-listening is behaving together if you paying fist to a speaker when you’re actually no (McCornack, 2007). Outwardly visible signals that attentiveness are crucial part that the hear process, yet when lock are just an “act,” the pseudo-listener is engaging in poor listening behaviors. She or that is no actually going with the step of the listening procedure and will likely not have the ability to recall the speaker’s article or offer a competent and relevant response. Although it is a negative listening practice, we all understandably communicate in pseudo-listening indigenous time come time. If a friend requirements someone come talk but you’re really exhausted or suffering some other barrier to reliable listening, it may be worth engaging in pseudo-listening together a relational maintain strategy, specifically if the friend simply needs a sounding board and also isn’t expecting advice or guidance. We may likewise pseudo-listen come a romantic companion or grandfather’s story because that the fifteenth time to prevent hurting their feelings. We need to avoid pseudo-listening when feasible and should absolutely avoid making the a hear habit. Although us may gain away v it in some situations, every time we danger being “found out,” which could have an adverse relational consequences.

Key Takeaways

Environmental and also physical barriers to efficient listening include furniture placement, ecological noise such together sounds of website traffic or world talking, physiological noise such as a sinus headache or hunger, and psychological noise such as tension or anger.Cognitive barriers to efficient listening encompass the difference in between speech and also thought price that permits us “extra room” to think about other things while someone is talking and also limitations in our capacity or willingness to concentrate or salary attention. Personal barriers to effective listening incorporate a lack of hear preparation, poorly structured and/or poorly yielded messages, and prejudice.

There room several poor listening methods that we need to avoid, together they perform not facilitate effective listening:

Interruptions that room unintentional or serve an important or beneficial purpose space not considered poor listening. Once interrupting becomes a habit or is used in an attempt to dominate a conversation, then it is a barrier to effective listening.Distorted listening occurs once we erroneously recall information, skew details to fit our expectation or existing schemata, or include material come embellish or adjust information.Eavesdropping is a planned attempt to privately listen to a conversation, i beg your pardon is a violation of the speakers’ privacy.Aggressive hearne is a bad listening practice in which human being pay fist to a speaker in bespeak to attack something lock say.Narcissistic hear is self-centered and also self-absorbed hear in which listeners shot to do the interaction around them by interrupting, changing the subject, or drawing attention far from others.Pseudo-listening is “fake listening,” in that world behave favor they are paying attention and also listening as soon as they actually are not.


We are capable of thinking much faster than the rate at i m sorry the average human being speaks, which enables us some room to put mental faculties towards things various other than listening. What frequently makes your mind wander?Bad speakers and messages space a common barrier to efficient listening. Define a time newly when your ability to listen was impaired through the bad delivery and/or contents of an additional person.Of the poor listening methods listed, which perform you use the most? Why carry out you think you usage this one an ext than the others? What can you do to assist prevent or lessen this barrier?


Andersen, P. A., Nonverbal Communication: Forms and also Functions (Mountain View, CA: Mayfield, 1999), 57–58.

Bardhi, F., Andres J. Rohm, and Fareena Sultan, “Tuning in and also Tuning out: Media Multitasking amongst Young Consumers,” Journal of customer Behaviour 9 (2010): 318.

Brownell, J., “Listening Environment: A Perspective,” in Perspectives top top Listening, eds. Andrew D. Wolvin and also Carolyn Gwynn Coakley (Norwood, NJ: Alex posting Corporation, 1993), 245.

Fried, C. B., “In-Class Laptop Use and also Its results on college student Learning,” Computers and Education 50 (2008): 906–14.

Hargie, O., Skilled Interpersonal Interaction: Research, Theory, and also Practice (London: Routledge, 2011), 200.

McCornack, S., Reflect and also Relate: An introduction to Interpersonal Communication (Boston, MA: Bedford/St Martin’s, 2007), 208.

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Nichols, M. P., The lost Art that Listening (New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1995), 68–72.