For many people the thought of delivering a presentation is a daunting task and brings about a great deal of nerves. However, if you take some time to understand how effective presentations are structured and then apply this structure to your own presentation, you’ll appear much more confident and relaxed.
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Here is our complete guide for structuring your presentation, with examples at the end of the article to demonstrate these points.
Why is structuring a presentation so important?
If you’ve ever sat through a great presentation, you"ll have left feeling either inspired or informed on a given topic. This isn’t because the speaker was the most knowledgeable or motivating person in the world. Instead, it’s because they know how to structure presentations - they have crafted their message in a logical and simple way that has allowed the audience can keep up with them and take away key messages.
Research has supported this, with studies showing that audiences retain structured information 40% more accurately than unstructured information.
In fact, not only is structuring a presentation important for the benefit of the audience’s understanding, it’s also important for you as the speaker. A good structure helps you remain calm, stay on topic, and avoid any awkward silences.
What will affect your presentation structure?
Generally speaking, there is a natural flow that any decent presentation will follow which we will go into shortly. However, you should be aware that all presentation structures will be different in their own unique way and this will be due to a number of factors, including:Whether you need to deliver any demonstrations How much interaction you want from the audience Any time constraints there are for your talk What setting you are in Your ability to use any kinds of visual assistance
Before choosing the presentation"s structure answer these questions first:What is your presentation"s aim? Who are the audience? What are the main points your audience should remember afterwards?
When reading the points below, think critically about what things may cause your presentation structure to be slightly different. You can add in certain elements and add more focus to certain moments if that works better for your speech.
What is the typical presentation structure?
This is the usual flow of a presentation, which covers all the vital sections and is a good starting point for yours. It allows your audience to easily follow along and sets out a solid structure you can add your content to.1. Greet the audience and introduce yourself
Before you start delivering your talk, introduce yourself to the audience and clarify who you are and your relevant expertise. This does not need to be long or incredibly detailed, but will help build an immediate relationship between you and the audience. It gives you the chance to briefly clarify your expertise and why you are worth listening to. This will help establish your ethos so the audience will trust you more and think you"re credible.
Read our tips on How to Start a Presentation Effectively
In the introduction you need to explain the subject and purpose of your presentation whilst gaining the audience"s interest and confidence. It"s sometimes helpful to think of your introduction as funnel-shaped to help filter down your topic:Introduce your general topic Explain your topic area State the issues/challenges in this area you will be exploring State your presentation"s purpose - this is the basis of your presentation so ensure that you provide a statement explaining how the topic will be treated, for example, "I will argue that…" or maybe you will "compare", "analyse", "evaluate", "describe" etc. Provide a statement of what you"re hoping the outcome of the presentation will be, for example, "I"m hoping this will be provide you with..." Show a preview of the organisation of your presentation
In this section also explain:The length of the talk. Signal whether you want audience interaction - some presenters prefer the audience to ask questions throughout whereas others allocate a specific section for this. If it applies, inform the audience whether to take notes or whether you will be providing handouts.
The way you structure your introduction can depend on the amount of time you have been given to present: a sales pitch may consist of a quick presentation so you may begin with your conclusion and then provide the evidence. Conversely, a speaker presenting their idea for change in the world would be better suited to start with the evidence and then conclude what this means for the audience.
Keep in mind that the main aim of the introduction is to grab the audience"s attention and connect with them.3. The main body of your talk
The main body of your talk needs to meet the promises you made in the introduction. Depending on the nature of your presentation, clearly segment the different topics you will be discussing, and then work your way through them one at a time - it"s important for everything to be organised logically for the audience to fully understand. There are many different ways to organise your main points, such as, by priority, theme, chronologically etc.Main points should be addressed one by one with supporting evidence and examples. Before moving on to the next point you should provide a mini-summary. Links should be clearly stated between ideas and you must make it clear when you"re moving onto the next point. Allow time for people to take relevant notes and stick to the topics you have prepared beforehand rather than straying too far off topic.
When planning your presentation write a list of main points you want to make and ask yourself "What I am telling the audience? What should they understand from this?" refining your answers this way will help you produce clear messages.4. Conclusion
In presentations the conclusion is frequently underdeveloped and lacks purpose which is a shame as it"s the best place to reinforce your messages. Typically, your presentation has a specific goal - that could be to convert a number of the audience members into customers, lead to a certain number of enquiries to make people knowledgeable on specific key points, or to motivate them towards a shared goal.
Regardless of what that goal is, be sure to summarise your main points and their implications. This clarifies the overall purpose of your talk and reinforces your reason for being there.
Follow these steps:Signal that it"s nearly the end of your presentation, for example, "As we wrap up/as we wind down the talk…" Restate the topic and purpose of your presentation - "In this speech I wanted to compare…" Summarise the main points, including their implications and conclusions Indicate what is next/a call to action/a thought-provoking takeaway Move on to the last section 5. Thank the audience and invite questions
Conclude your talk by thanking the audience for their time and invite them to ask any questions they may have. As mentioned earlier, personal circumstances will affect the structure of your presentation.
Many presenters prefer to make the Q&A session the key part of their talk and try to speed through the main body of the presentation. This is totally fine, but it is still best to focus on delivering some sort of initial presentation to set the tone and topics for discussion in the Q&A.
Other common presentation structures
The above was a description of a basic presentation, here are some more specific presentation layouts:Demonstration
Use the demonstration structure when you have something useful to show. This is usually used when you want to show how a product works. Steve Jobs frequently used this technique in his presentations.Explain why the product is valuable. Describe why the product is necessary. Explain what problems it can solve for the audience. Make suggestions of other things it can do to make the audience curious. Problem-solution
This structure is particularly useful in persuading the audience.Briefly frame the issue. Go into the issue in detail showing why it "s such a problem. Use logos and pathos for this - the logical and emotional appeals. Provide the solution and explain why this would also help the audience. Call to action - something you want the audience to do which is straightforward and pertinent to the solution. Storytelling
As well as incorporating stories in your presentation, you can organise your whole presentation as a story. There are lots of different type of story structures you can use - a popular choice is the monomyth - the hero"s journey. In a monomyth, a hero goes on a difficult journey or takes on a challenge - they move from the familiar into the unknown. After facing obstacles and ultimately succeeding the hero returns home, transformed and with newfound wisdom.
Another popular choice for using a story to structure your presentation is in media ras (in the middle of thing). In this type of story you launch right into the action by providing a snippet/teaser of what"s happening and then you start explaining the events that led to that event. This is engaging because you"re starting your story at the most exciting part which will make the audience curious - they"ll want to know how you got there.Remaining method
The remaining method structure is good for situations where you"re presenting your perspective on a controversial topic which has split people"s opinions.Briefly frame the issue. Go into the issue in detail showing why it"s such a problem - use logos and pathos. After you"ve presented all the alternatives provide your solution, the remaining solution. This is very persuasive because it looks like the winning idea, especially with the audience believing that you"re fair and trustworthy.
When delivering presentations it"s important for your words and ideas to flow so your audience can understand how everything links together and why it"s all relevant. This can be done using speech transitions which are words and phrases that allow you to smoothly move from one point to another so that your speech flows and your presentation is unified.
Transitions can be one word, a phrase or a full sentence - there are many different forms, here are some examples:Moving from the introduction to the first point
Signify to the audience that you will now begin discussing the first main point:Now that you"re aware of the overview, let"s begin with... First, let"s begin with... I will first cover... My first point covers... To get started, let"s look at... Shifting between similar points
Move from one point to a similar one:In the same way... Likewise... Equally... This is similar to... Similarly... Internal summaries
Internal summarising consists of summarising before moving on to the next point. You must inform the audience:What part of the presentation you covered - "In the first part of this speech we"ve covered..." What the key points were - "Precisely how..." How this links in with the overall presentation - "So that"s the context..." What you"re moving on to - "Now I"d like to move on to the second part of presentation which looks at..." Physical movement
You can move your body and your standing location when you transition to another point. The audience find it easier to follow your presentation and movement will increase their interest.
A common technique for incorporating movement into your presentation is to:Start your introduction by standing in the centre of the stage. For your first point you stand on the left side of the stage. You discuss your second point from the centre again. You stand on the right side of the stage for your third point. The conclusion occurs in the centre.
Key slides for your presentation
Slides are a useful tool for most presentations: they can greatly assist in the delivery of your message and help the audience follow along with what you are saying. Key slides include:An intro slide outlining your ideas High quality image slides to supplement what you are saying
There are some presenters who choose not to use slides at all, though this is more of a rarity. Slides can be a powerful tool if used properly, but the problem is that many fail to do just that. Here are some golden rules to follow when using slides in a presentation:Don"t over fill them - your slides are there to assist your speech, rather than be the focal point. They should have as little information as possible, to avoid distracting people from your talk. A picture says a thousand words - instead of filling a slide with text, instead, focus on one or two images or diagrams to help support and explain the point you are discussing at that time. Make them readable - depending on the size of your audience, some may not be able to see small text or images, so make everything large enough to fill the space. Don"t rush through slides - give the audience enough time to digest each slide. There should be a maximum of 10 slides - people rarely remember more than one concept afterwards so there"s no point overwhelming them with unnecessary information. The presentation should last no longer than 20 minutes as this will leave time for questions and discussion. The font size should be a minimum of 30pt because the audience reads faster than you talk so less information on the slides means that there is less chance of the audience being distracted.
Here are some additional resources for slide design:
Group presentations are structured in the same way as presentations with one speaker but usually require more rehearsal and practices. Clean transitioning between speakers is very important in producing a presentation that flows well. One way of doing this consists of:Briefly recap on what you covered in your section: "So that was a brief introduction on what health anxiety is and how it can affect somebody" Introduce the next speaker in the team and explain what they will discuss: "Now Elnaz will talk about the prevalence of health anxiety." Then end by looking at the next speaker, gesturing towards them and saying their name: "Elnaz". The next speaker should acknowledge this with a quick: "Thank you Joe."
From this example you can see how the different sections of the presentations link which makes it easier for the audience to follow and remain engaged.
Example of great presentation structure and delivery
Having examples of great presentations will help inspire your own structures, here are a few such examples, each unique and inspiring in their own way.How Google Works - by Eric Schmidt
This presentation by ex-Google CEO Eric Schmidt demonstrates some of the most important lessons he and his team have learnt with regards to working with some of the most talented individuals they hired. The simplistic yet cohesive style of all of the slides is something to be appreciated. They are relatively straightforward, yet add power and clarity to the narrative of the presentation.Start with why - by Simon Sinek
Since being released in 2009, this presentation has been viewed almost four million times all around the world. The message itself is very powerful, however, it’s not an idea that hasn"t been heard before. What makes this presentation so powerful is the simple message he is getting across, and the straightforward and understandable manner in which he delivers it. Also note that he doesn"t use any slides, just a whiteboard where he creates a simple diagram of his opinion.The Wisdom of a Third Grade Dropout - by Rick Rigsby
Here’s an example of a presentation given by a relatively unknown individual looking to inspire the next generation of graduates. Rick’s presentation is unique in many ways compared to the two above. Notably, he uses no visual prompts and includes a great deal of humour.
However, what is similar is the structure he uses. He first introduces his message that the wisest man he knew was a third-grade dropout. He then proceeds to deliver his main body of argument, and in the end, concludes with his message. This powerful speech keeps the viewer engaged throughout, through a mixture of heart-warming sentiment, powerful life advice and engaging humour.
As you can see from the examples above, and as it has been expressed throughout, a great presentation structure means analysing the core message of your presentation. Decide on a key message you want to impart the audience with, and then craft an engaging way of delivering it.
By preparing a solid structure, and practising your talk beforehand, you can walk into the presentation with confidence and deliver a meaningful message to an interested audience.
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It"s important for a presentation to be well-structured so it can have the most impact on your audience. An unstructured presentation can be difficult to follow and even frustrating to listen to. The heart of your speech are your main points supported by evidence and your transitions should assist the movement between points and clarify how everything is linked.
Research suggests that the audience remember the first and last things you say so your introduction and conclusion are vital for reinforcing your points. Essentially, ensure you spend the time structuring your presentation and addressing all of the sections.