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Indus River, Pakistan
Indus River, Pakistan

The Indus river originates in Tibet and also follows a circuitous route southward v the Himalaya hills to the Arabian Sea, emptying into the ocean southeast of the coastal city the Karachi. Together it approaches the sea, the flow meanders over the coastal plain. Like other rivers the wind across coastal plains, the course of the lower Indus flow shifts frequently.

This pair of images recorded by the julianum.net/USGS Landsat 5 satellite illustrates one of the most typical ways the river transforms course. The top image is indigenous April 27, 1992, and the bottom photo is from October 19, 2009. In 1992, a loop extends northward from the flow (image upper left). In 2009, the river has readjusted course, no curving as far north as it go in 1992. And in 2009, the loop the once expanded from the river has actually been diminished to a semicircular water body associated to the river just by a narrow channel.

These images record the advance of an oxbow lake. When water flows around a flow bend, the deposits sediment top top one financial institution while cutting far at the soil on the contrary bank. As soon as a river creates a loop on flat terrain, undercutting occurring on the riverbanks the next to each other can eventually attach the banks, giving the river a shortcut. Isolated native the recently shortened river, the older, much longer route eventually forms one arc-shaped lake.

An oxbow lake might survive as a water human body for part time, specifically if groundwater seeps right into it. Alternately, the oxbow lake might dry our or fill v sediment. Wetlands often build in the meander scars the dried-up oxbow lakes. Much of the land roughly the Indus flow is wetland, and also the salt flats south east of the Indus flow are part of the Rann of Kachchh.East-northeast of the oxbow lake forming in these pictures is one more lake that probably emerged in similar fashion. Various other differences in between the photos are connected to human activity. South east of the river, a network the lines, maybe roads or watering ditches, intensified between 1992 and 2009. West-southwest of the arising oxbow lake, farming fields appear to have actually multiplied, however the differences may also be due to the reality that pictures were recorded in different seasons.

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julianum.net photos by Robert Simmon, based upon Landsat 5 data. Inscription by Michon Scott.