to classify a given julianum.netical reaction right into a variety of types.

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Although there space untold millions of possible julianum.netical reactions, most have the right to be classified into a small number of general reaction types. Classifying reactions has actually two purposes: it helps united state to identify similarities among them, and also it enables us come predict the products of certain reactions. A particular reaction may loss into an ext than among the category that we will specify in this book.

Combination (composition) Reactions

A combination (composition) reaction is a julianum.netistry reaction that makes a single substance from two or an ext reactants. There may be an ext than one molecule that product in the balanced julianum.netical equation, yet there is just one problem produced. For example, the equation

is a mix reaction that produces (ceFe2O3) indigenous its ingredient elements—Fe and also O2. Combination reactions carry out not have to incorporate elements, however. The julianum.netistry equation

shows a mix reaction in which (ceFe2O3) combines with three molecules that (ceSO3) to do (ceFe2(SO4)3).

Decomposition Reactions

A decomposition reaction is the reverse of a combination reaction. In a decomposition reaction, a single substance is converted right into two or much more products. There may be an ext than one molecule the the reactant, however there is just one substance initially. Because that example, the equation

is a decomposition reaction that occurs when (ceNaHCO3) is exposed come heat. An additional example is the decomposition of (ceKClO3):

This reaction to be once generally used come generate tiny amounts that oxygen in the julianum.netistry lab.

Combustion Reactions

A burning reaction occurs once a problem combines through molecular oxygen to do oxygen-containing link of other elements in the reaction. Many combustion reactions occur with a hydrocarbon, a compound comprised solely the carbon and hydrogen. The assets of the combustion of hydrocarbons space carbon dioxide and also water. Plenty of hydrocarbons are supplied as fuel since their combustion releases very large amounts of warm energy. An instance is propane (C3H8), a gas hydrocarbon that is frequently used together the fuel resource in gas grills.

C3H8(g) + 5O2(g) → 3CO2(g) + 4H2O(g)

Another example is the burning of acetylene ((ceC2H2)) in welding torches:

Oxygen (in its elemental form) is a crucial reactant in combustion reactions.

Energy in the type of heat is usually provided off as a product in a burning reaction together well.

Example (PageIndex2)


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important heat-trapping (greenhouse) gas, i beg your pardon is released with human activities such together deforestation and also burning fossil fuels, and also natural procedures such together respiration and also volcanic eruptions. The graph above shows CO2 levels during the last 3 glacial cycles, as rebuilded from ice cores.

Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas emitted through human being activities. In 2015, CO2 accounted for about 82.2% of all U.S. Greenhouse gas emissions from human being activities. Carbon dioxide is naturally existing in the setting as component of the Earth"s carbon bike (the herbal circulation the carbon amongst the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and also animals). Human activities are altering the carbon cycle–both by adding much more CO2 to the atmosphere and by affecting the capacity of herbal sinks, like forests, to remove CO2 indigenous the atmosphere. If CO2 emissions come native a variety of herbal sources, human-related emissions room responsible because that the boost that has emerged in the atmosphere because the industrial revolution.

The main human activity that emits CO2 is the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, organic gas, and also oil) because that energy and also transportation, although particular industrial processes and land-use changes also emit CO2. An instance of just how CO2 deserve to be generated is the combustion that octane (C8H10), a component of gasoline.

Write the well balanced equation to represent the combustion of octane.


2C8H10(l) + 25O2(g) → 16CO2(g) + 18H2O(g)

The well balanced reaction suggests that because that every 2 molecules that octane that are burned, 16 molecules of CO2 space generated.

Example (PageIndex2)

Identify each kind of reaction.

(ce2K(s) + S(s) + 2O2(g) → K2SO4(s)) (ce(NH4)2Cr2O7(s) → N2(g) + Cr2O3(s) + 4H2O(ℓ)) (ceCH4(g) + 2O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2H2O(ℓ))


many reactants are combining to do a single product, therefore this reaction is a mix reaction. A solitary substance reacts to make number of products, so we have actually a decomposition reaction. Oxygen reacts v a link to make carbon dioxide (an oxide the carbon) and water (an oxide of hydrogen). This is a burning reaction.

Concept testimonial Exercises

What is the difference between a combination reaction and a combustion reaction? give the distinguishing characteristic(s) that a decomposition reaction. Just how do we identify a burning reaction?

Key Takeaway

There are number of recognizable species of julianum.netical reactions: combination, decomposition, and also combustion reactions are examples.

Identify each type of reaction.

C6H5CH3 + 9O2 → 7CO2 + 4H2O 2NaHCO3 → Na2CO3 + H2O + CO2 C + 2H2 → CH4

Identify each type of reaction.

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P4O10 + 6H2O → 4H3PO4 FeO + SO3 → FeSO4 CaCO3(s) → CO2(g) + CaO(s)

Identify each type of reaction.

2NH4NO3(s) → 2N2(g) + 4H2O(g) + O2(g) Hg(ℓ) + ½O2 (g) → HgO(s) CH2CH2(g) + Br2(ℓ) → CH2BrCH2Br