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You are watching: A dural fold separating the cerebrum from the cerebellum

StatPearls . Endowment Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.


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Introduction

The dura mater often gets referred to as just the dura. It is among the layers of connective organization that consist of the meninges the the brain (pia, arachnoid, and also dura, from inside to outside). It is the outermost great of the 3 meninges the surround and protect the brain and spinal cord. The dura mater is comprised of fibroblasts and huge amounts the extracellular collagen.<1>

The dura mater is created of two layers: the periosteal/endosteal layer and also the meningeal layer. The dural venous sinuses are in between these two layers. The dura crease to type septa that develop the falx cerebri, tentorium cerebelli, falx cerebelli, and diaphragma sellae.


Structure and also Function

The periosteal or endosteal great of the dura mater is simply a class of periosteum that covers the inner surface of the skull. The great does not extend beyond the foramen magnum to become contiguous through the dura mater of the spinal cord. The spinal cord dura mater has actually no periosteal layer.

In the brain, the periosteal layer provides a tubular sheath-like extending for the cranial nerves together they pass v the various foramina that the skull. As quickly as the cranial nerves exit the foramen, the periosteal class fuses v the epineurium that nerves.

The meningeal layer of the dura mater is a durable, thick fibrous membrane the passes v the foramen magnum and also is continuous with the dura mater of the spinal cord. The meningeal great of the dura mater creates several dural wrinkle that division the cranial cavity right into freely interacting spaces. The function of the dural wrinkle is to limit the rotational displacement of the brain.

The wrinkle include the following:


Falx cerebelli is a upright fold the separates the two cerebellar hemispheres and lies inferior to the tentorium cerebelli.
Tentorium cerebelli is a crescent-shaped wrinkles of the dura mater and also forms a roof over the posterior cranial fossa. It shields the superior surface that the cerebellum and also supports the occipital lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.
Diaphragma sellae is a little circular wrinkles of dura that develops the roof of the sella turcica. The diaphragma sellae has a tiny opening in the center segment that allows the passage of the stalk the the pituitary gland.

Potential Spaces

The dura mater offer the following function:<5>


Envelops and protect the brain and spinal cord
Regulate the generation and migration that neural progenitors
Limit the rotational displacement the the brain

Embryology

The dural mater originates from the somitic mesoderm, i m sorry condenses around the neural tube soon after the neural pipe closes in ~ the embryonic work 9, when the pia and also arachnoid (leptomeninges) originate indigenous the neural crest.<5><6>

The dura, forms between the arachnoid mater and also the calvarial mesenchyme, which at some point forms the calvarial bones.<7>

The very first of the dural procedures to construct is the tentorium cerebelli.<6>

Research has presented that fetal meninges play crucial role during brain development. The dura mater influences the proliferation and migration of neural progenitors cells and also neurons in the prosencephalon (forebrain) and also rhombencephalon (hindbrain).<7>


Blood Supply and Lymphatics

The dura mater obtain vascular supply from the complying with branches:


Internal carotid artery

Surgical Considerations

The dura mater is very important to the clinician because it is a barrier to the internal environment of the brain, and surgically, the neurosurgeon and also clinician who translate imaging should understand its anatomy.<9>

Dural tears room a regular complication the lumbar spine surgery.<10>

Lumbar Puncture

Diagnostic lumbar puncture is among the most typically performed invasive tests in clinical medicine.<11> Some typical indications because that lumbar puncture include evaluation of inflammatory or infectious an illness of the nervous device (viral, bacterial, tuberculous, or fungal meningitis) and also acute headache.

Knowledge of the anatomy of the lumbar spine is crucial for anyone performing a lumbar puncture. The lumbar puncture needle transverses the following structures in order: skin, subcutaneous tissue, supraspinous ligament, interspinous ligament, ligamentum flavum, epidural space, dura mater, arachnoid mater, and lastly the subarachnoid room where cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) is stored.<11>


Clinical Significance

After head trauma, a patience may build an epidural (extradural) or subdural hematoma. The hematoma deserve to lead come a quick rise in intracranial pressure, and death can result if not treated.

Epidural Hematoma

In one epidural hematoma, the arterial blood collects in between the endosteal layer of the dura and the skull. The courage frequently connected is the middle meningeal artery (MMA), which might be ruptured or torn together a an outcome of dull or penetrating brain trauma.<12><3> The middle meningeal artery is a tributary of the maxillary artery, and the maxillary artery is just one of the terminal branches that the external carotid artery.

Subdural Hematoma

In a subdural hematoma, over there is a arsenal of venous blood in between the dura and also the arachnoid mater. The hematoma frequently is due to injury or rupture the the subdural veins together they empty into the dural venous sinuses. Subdural hematoma occurs from the rupture the bridging veins, typically from head trauma. Because the venous press in the veins is low, the hematoma is not commonly large, and also progression is no rapid. Rise in intracranial pressure have the right to increase the rate of bleeding from the ruptured bridging veins.<13> The anatomy that the bridging vein makes it vulnerable to tearing within the border cabinet layer that the dura mater.<13>

Subdural bleeding (SDB) in infants is considered crucial symptom that nonaccidental head injury.

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The Sensitivity that the Dural Mater

The dura mater is very sensitive come stretch. Any kind of irritation the the dura often reasons a emotion of a headache, e.g., meningitis, hematoma.